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Spastic Cerebral Palsies
(75-80% of all CP)
- affects one side of the body
- accounts for 30-40% of spastic CP in various series
- prenatal causes in about 75%
- genetic/familial cases are rare but reported
- 25% are preterm.
- the legs are more severely affected than the arms
- accounts for 20-40% of spastic CP in various series
- 50% preterm, classically associated with periventricular
- Other reported associations are PET (25%), APH
(40%), abnormal labour or delivery or both (50%).
- In a high proportion of patients no aetiological
factor can be found.
Quadriplegia - (also called tetraplegia or bilateral
- All limbs affected
- 5% preterm, 21% SGA
- prenatal cause in 30%, perinatal in 16%, postnatal
in 18% (1).
Non-spastic Cerebral Palsies
- 9% of all CP
- High proportion with hyperbilirubinaemia + hypoxia,
especially in developing countries
- Athetosis and sensori-neural deafness common after
- 7% of all CP
- prenatal factors are dominant but the pathogenetic
mechanisms are unclear.
NB Many babies with cerebral palsy have a mixed
1. Edebol-Tysk, Hagberg G (1989) Epidemiology of Spastic
Tetraplegia Cerebral Palsy in Sweden. 2. Prevalence
Birth Data and Origin. Neuropaediatrics, 20: 46-52,